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530 



>URVEY 



GEOLOGIST 



BULLETIN 13 



A BRIEF SUMMARY OF 



A RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



THE h, IESEEKER, INVESTOR, BUSINESS MAN, 
FARMER AND OTHERS 



By Oeo. H. Ashley, State Geologist. 




NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE 
1911 



BRANDON-NASHVILLE 



BERKELEY 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OP 
CALIFORNIA 



EARTH 

SCIENQES 

LIBRARY 



EXCHANGE 




STATE OF TENNESSEE 
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

GEO. H. ASHLEY, STATE GEOLOGIST 



BULLETIN 13 



A BRIEF SUMMARY OF 



THE RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



FOR THE HOMESEEKER, INVESTOR, BUSINESS MAN, 
FARMER AND OTHERS 



By Geo. H. Ashley, State Geologist. 




NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE 
1911 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



EARTH 

SCFENQE3 
LIBRARY 



STATE GEOLOGICAL COMMISSION 



BEN W. HOOPER, Chairman, 
Governor of Tennessee. 

JOHN THOMPSON, 

State Commissioner of Agriculture. 

R. A. SHIFLETT, 

Chief Mine Inspector. 

BROWN AYRES, 

President, University of Tennessee. 

J. H. KIRKLAND, 

Chancellor of Vanderbilt University. 

WM. B. HALL, 

Vice-Chancellor, University of Tennessee. 



E? *f -'SSHLEY, 

State Geologist. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE^ 




STATE CAPITOL, NASHVILLE. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 7 

General Statement 

The Non-Mineral Resources 15 

The Unakas - 15 

The Valley of East Tennessee 16 

The Cumberland Plateau 17 

The Highland Rim 19 

The Nashville Basin '.... 20 

The West Tennessee Plateau and Bottom-Lands 21 

The Mineral Resources 24 

General statement 24 

Barite 25 

Bauxite 25 

Cement 25 

Chert 26 

Clays and shales 26 

Coal : 28 

Copper 30 

Dolomite 30 

Fluorspar._ 30 

Glass sand 3333OS 3O 



6 < ; < .RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 

The Mineral Resources Continued PAGE 

Gold - 30 

Granite 3 1 

Green sand 3 1 

Iron 31 

Lead .: 32 

Lignite - 33 

Limestone - 33 

Lithographic stone - 33 

Manganese - 33 

Marble 35 

Metallic paint and mortar colors - 35 

Mineral springs - 35 

Oil and gas - 35 

Phosphate - 36 

Pyrite .' 3 6 

Sandstone - 36 

Silica rock. - 3 6 

Silver - 37 

Slate - - 37 

Zinc 37 

Acknowledgments -- 38 

List of Survey publications - 39 




NASHVILLE is GREATEST GRAIN CENTER IN THE SOUTH. 



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THE RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



BY GEO. H. ASHLEY. 



INTRODUCTION 

With the opening of the Panama Canal in 1913, there will be offered 
to the Southern States a gateway to the Pacific coast of both North and 
South America, and to all of the Orient, through which they will have 
decided advantages over their more distant neighbors to the north. 
Aside, therefore, from the phenomenal growth that these states have 
had during the last few years, they seem to be on the threshold of a 
still greater opportunity. 

The wide-awake manufacturers, miners, and capitalists all over the 
country are alive to this opportunity, and they, as well as farmers and 
mechanics, are looking to the South for chances for investment and 
work. 

This short bulletin is intended to present in a few words a clear, 
reliable statement of the State's resources mineral, agricultural and 
forest, and in addition a picture of the State's character as a place to 
live and grow up in, both in the city and the country. The pictures show 
the character of the country, give some idea of city improvements and 
illustrate some of the more typical industries. For fuller information, 
the reader is referred to the list of Survey publications at the back of 
this bulletin. 




I 



RIVER TRANSPORTATION, NASHVILLE. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



GENERAL STATEMENT 

Tennessee probably equals or excels any other 
State in the Union in general attractiveness 
of physiographic aspect, combined with rich 
agricultural resources and stores of mineral 
wealth. Much of the State is underlain 
with fertile limestone soils, associated with a 
rolling topography, clear, rapid streams and 
excellent health conditions. Of its 42,050 
square miles, probably 2,500 are bottom- 
lands, in part needing draining to become pro- 
ductive; as much more are mountains and 
escarpment, rising 1,000 to 5,500 feet above 
the neighboring valleys, picturesque, rich in 
minerals, the seat of permanent forests; 
9,200 square miles are an open valley, 1,000 
feet above sea level, a continuation of the 
fertile Valley of Virginia and Lebanon Valley 
of Pennsylvania; 14,000 square miles are 

plateaux, in part 2,000 feet above sea, underlain with coal and iron, and 
in part 1,000 feet above sea, underlain with building stone, phosphate 
and other minerals, and both probably destined as great fruit districts; 
5,400 square miles are included in the Nashville Basin, beautifully rolling 





CHATTANOOGA is AN IRON AND COAL CENTER. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




WATER-POWER IN TENNESSEE. H ALE'S BAR (Lock and Dam under construction). 

and fertile; and 8,850 square miles in West Tennessee are rolling uplands 
resembling the less level parts of Illinois and adjoining States. 

Some idea of the richness and variety of her mineral resources may 
be gained from the statement that Tennessee, if cut off from communica- 
tion with all other States, could continue to supply herself with all, or 
nearly all, of the needful materials to maintain her present or future 
civilization. Water-power and coal would supply her with power; 
her mines of iron, lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, aluminum and other 
mines would supply her with metals; her building stones, marbles, clays, 




RESIDENCES AND PARK IN TENNESSEE CITY (Nashville). 



10 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



cement materials and forests would supply her with building materials; 
most of the materials used in chemistry and the arts, she could secure 
from her own storehouse, if cut off from outside supplies ; and with the 
exception of tropical fruits, she can raise any food raised anywhere in the 
United States. 




RIVER TRANSPORTATION AT MEMPHIS. 

Tennessee combines a southern position with high altitude, rendering 
the climate one of the most equable and delightful of any State in the 
Union the winters are short and the summers long, but neither the 
winter cold nor the summer heat is as great as in the Northern States. 
The average rainfall is about 52 inches, well distributed all through the 
year, with an average of 265 clear days in a year. The growing season, as 
measured by the number of days between frosts, is 189. 




TENNESSEE RIVER FROM KNOXVILLE COUNTRY CLUB, UNAKA MOUNTAINS IN DISTANCE. 

Transportation in Tennessee is greatly aided by the existence of 
1,200 miles of navigable streams, including 315 miles on the Cumberland 
River, 320 on the Tennessee and 200 on the Mississippi. These insure 
low freight rates at a forge number of points. In addition there are at 
present almost 4,000 miles of railway track in the State. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



ii 




COUNTY COURT HOUSE, SHELBY COUNTY (Memphis). 
(Copyright by Coovert, Memphis.) 

Tennessee has a population of 2,184,612, of which between one-fourth 
and one-third are colored. The State has four large thriving cities: 
Memphis, said to be the largest inland cotton market in the United 
States, if not in the world, and the largest hardwood market in the 
world; Nashville, the capital, is the largest publishing city in the United 
States outside of New York, and the leading educational center of the 
South, with over 10,000 visiting students; Chattanooga is a great iron 
and coal center and Knoxville, the site of the State University, is the 
distributing point for much of East Tennessee's mineral and agricultural 
wealth. These, with scores of smaller cities, compare favorably with 
other cities of their size any where in the United States in municipal 
improvement, parks, streets, public buildings, etc. and in the 
character and appearance of their homes. Illustrations are given of the 
Shelby County Court House at Memphis, costing $1,500,000, and 
public buildings at Chattanooga, public parks at Nashville and Memphis, 
of business streets in Chattanooga and Knoxville, and of a residence 
section in Nashville. These pictures give but a faint glimpse into city 
life in Tennessee. 




SUBURBAN HOMES (Nashville). 



12 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




PUBLIC BUILDINGS (Chattanooga). 



Some of the views give a good idea of conditions of life in the country 
where good roads, rural free delivery and interurban transportation 
make life attractive here as elsewhere. Life in the small area of the 
mountains is still primitive, but this is beginning to give way before the 
fruit raiser. It is unfortunate for the State that this remnant of prim- 
itive life has so long proved fascinating to the writer and novelist, as 
too often to those living away, the name of the State brings up the 
familiar character of the mountaineer, rather than the prosaic man of 
affairs, who after all is the man of destiny in the growing State of Ten- 
nessee. 

The taxable wealth of Tennessee in 1910 is given at over half a 
billion dollars, with a debt of $11,500,000. In 1910 the State's income 
from all sources was over $3,700,000, the tax rate was 35 cents on $100. 
County taxes vary with the county. Between 1900 and 1910 the State 
Legislature authorized the different counties to bond themselves to 
the extent of $10,000,000 for the building of good roads, and some of 
the wealthier counties have hundreds of miles of good roads built without 
bonding. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




CITY LIFE IN TENNESSEE (Memphis). 
(Copyright by Coovert, Memphis.) 




ff 




COUNTRY LIFE IN TENNESSEE is ALSO ATTRACTIVE. 
(Glencliff Farm, Davidson County.) 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




TYPICAL TURNPIKE, DAVIDSON COUNTY. 
Taken April 15, when unimproved roads were at their worst. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



THE NON-MINERAL RESOURCES 

For the purpose of this bulletin, the physiography, soils, forests and 
other non-mineral resources may be discussed by sections of the State, 
going from east to west. 

The Unakas. This is the 
western flank and foot hill 
region of the Unakas or Great 
Smoky Mountains, a belt 
averaging 13 miles wide with 
an extent of 2,000 square miles 
and located on the extreme 
eastern edge of the State. 
Its general elevation varies 
from 1,500 to 5,000 feet, with 
some of the higher peaks 
reaching over 6,000 feet above 
sea level. It is a region of 
often rounded crests suited 
for grazing, steep, timber 
covered slopes, and deep 
gorge-like ravines, opening 
out onto inclosed valleys, a 
region of fine timber, great 
water-power and abundant 
grazing grounds. Taken as 
a whole, the soils are coarse, 
gravelly, thin and unpro- 
ductive, though the valleys and coves and some other areas have fairly 
good argillaceous soils. The country is drained westerly by swift 
mountain streams tributary to the Tennessee, some of which cut through 
the range. Small farms occur along the streams and in the broader 
coves, but much of the region is in large holdings. Most of the land is 
too steep for cultivation. Four railroads cross the area, besides several 
logging railroads, but there are portions of the high ridges still very 
inaccessible and covered with virgin timber yellow poplar, hemlock, 
chestnut and a great variety of valuable hardwoods. This region is 
the source of the copper, gold, silver, slate and granite of the State, 
and of great deposits of iron. Of these the granite, slate and iron are 
largely awaiting development. This is "The land of the sky" destined 
to become a great health and summer resort. Already fine roads are 
being built to render accessible its beauties. 




OAK TIMBER, UNAKA SECTION, POLK COUNTY, TENN. 



16 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




AN EAST TENNESSEE LUMBER YARD (Crandall, Tennessee). 

Valley of East Tennessee. West of the Unaka range lies the Valley of 
East Tennessee with an average width of about 50 miles, an elevation of 
1,000 feet above the sea, and an area of 9,200 square miles. It is a region 
of long northeast-southwest limestone and shale valleys separated by 
narrow saw-toothed ridges of sandstone and chert. The soil on the 
ridges is usually thin and poor, though in places there is a sandy loam that 
is fertile and well adapted to fruit and garden products. Parts of the 
valleys over certain rock formations are productive, when first cleared, 
but deteriorate rapidly if continuously cropped. They do much better 
when used for grazing and meadows. As a rule the limestone valleys, 
making up most of the Great Valley, contain heavy soils or loams, and 




TYPICAL VIEW ACROSS VALLEY (NEAR JOXESBORO), UNAKAS IN DISTANCE. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




KNOXVILLE STREETS. 



are strong, fertile and durable, suitable for the raising of all crops. TJie 
entire region is drained south westward by the Tennessee River and its 
tributaries. Several trunk lines of railroads traverse the valley from end 
to end. Most of the land is held in farms of moderate size, agriculture 
being the chief industry. Small amounts of second growth timber occur 
on the crests and steeper slopes of the ridges, and many of the broad 
ridge tops, as well as the valleys, are in cultivation. The great valley is 
the seat of the State's marble industry and the source of barytes, zinc, 
red fossil iron ore, silica rock, cement and many other economic products. 
The zinc ores are awaiting capital for their development, many of the 
marbles are lying untouched. There is a fine local market for cement, 
etc., etc. 

Cumberland Plateau. The Cumberland Plateau is a high table land, 
2,000 feet in elevation, covering 5,000 square miles, and underlain with 
coals, shales, clays and limestones. At the northeast some mountains 
rise above the table land to about 3,000 or 4,000 feet, while numerous 
ravines and deep valleys cut into its otherwise flat top. It faces the 



18 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




MARKET STREET, CHATTANOOGA. 

Great Valley with a fairly even escarpment 1,000 feet high and generally 
precipitous. On the western side it forms a series of projecting head- 
lands, inclosing rich coves. From either edge of the plateau wonderful 
views are to be had of the broad rich valleys to the east and west (as in 
the frontispiece). 

The plateau country is notable for its summer climate and many 
springs, which give rise to a large number of health resorts. The soil is 
a light sandy loam, usually thin, overlying a fine yellow or red clay silt 



v 
I 

" Will 




COKE OVENS, CUMBERLAND PLATEAU (Eastland, Tennessee). 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 19 

subsoil. It is generally poor, and of small agricultural value, though 
areas of good fruit lands and lands adapted to potatoes and garden crops are 
abundant. It is believed the western headlands may prove highly suited to 
fruit raising when that is taken up as a business, rather than as a minor 
side issue. Lumbering and coal mining are the chief industries, and con- 
siderable bodies of virgin forests are still to be found away from the rail- 
roads. Probably one-half of the land is concentrated in large holdings 
for the coal and timber, or both. After the timber is cut many of these 
lands can be bought for one or two dollars an acre. In one case in the 
early part of 1911, a whole colony took up lands on the Plateau for close 
cultivation. 




HIGHLAND RIM AND INCLOSED VALLEY. 

The Highland Rim. The Highland Rim is a high, broad shelf, sur- 
rounding the Central or Nashville Basin, with an average elevation of 
950 feet above sea level, and an area of 9,300 square miles. It is a rolling 
country with broad valleys and rounded hills. The underlying rock is 
chiefly limestone, though on the edge of the Rim, facing the Central 
Basin, the rock is mainly chert. The cherty lands while containing 
small areas of fairly productive soil, is, much of it, of varying and uncertain 
agricultural value. That much of it may some day prove suitable for 
the raising of fruit seems highly probable, judging by the success of one 
or two colonies that have settled on the ridges and started to raising small 
fruits. Much of the lands can now be obtained for a song, as the virgin 
forest has all been cut off. The limestone soils back from the rim are red 
and yellow clay loams, which are fertile and easily worked. They are 
especially adapted to tobacco, cotton, cereals and fruit. The chief indus- 



20 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




LOGGING IN PERRY COUNTY. 



try is agriculture, although lum- 
bering and mining for phosphate 
and iron are also of local impor- 
tance. There is little virgin tim- 
ber left, and lumbering is usually 
on a small scale. The inner rim 
supplies chert and on the western 
side of the basin the "blue" phos- 
phate rock just underlies the chert. 
From the outer edge of the rim 
will be supplied lithographic 
stone and building stone, fluor- 
ite, zinc, cement and other 
materials. 



Nashville Basin. The Central or Nashville Basin, with an area of 
5,400 square miles, lies about 400 feet below the rim or about 500 feet 
above tide. It is a limestone basin. Much of the limestone of the west- 
ern side is rich in phosphate, of which large quantities are now being 
mined. It is beautifully rolling, the hills rising from 50 to 150 feet above 
the adjoining valleys. It is one of the few regions of the world combining 
great agricultural richness, beautiful scenery, clear flowing streams and 
health conditions of the highest type, a region of wealth, culture and in- 
fluence. Numerous railroads radiate from Nashville, affording, together 
with the Cumberland River, good means of transportation. The prin- 




A COUNTRY FLOUR MILL, DAILY CAPACITY 2500 BBLS. OF FLOUR; 4000 Bu. OF MEAL, ESTILL SPRINGS, TENN. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



21 




NASHVILLE BASIN WITH HIGHLAND RIM IN BACKGROUND. 

cipal wagon roads are macadamized, and with the exception of a few large 
estates, the land is held in small farms. The chief industry is agriculture. 
The soils in many places show the effect of continuous cropping for a hun- 
dred years or less without proper renewal, and in their depleted condition, 
close to the phosphate fields, offer splendid investments to any one willing 
to renew them by proper treatment. This area is natural blue grass 
land, and becoming famous for its fine cattle and sheep. The timber is 
largely confined to small ornamental groves about the houses, and to 
belts or patches of timber on broken lands along the creeks, and on the 
poorer hill sides and ridges. 




CHARACTERISTIC VIEW IN WEST TENNESSEE. 

West Tennessee Plateau and Bottom-Lands. The plateau is a region 
of rolling upland with light fertile soils, sluggish streams, with swampy 
bottom, the uplands rising 200 to 400 feet above the stream bottoms. 
The reclamation of the stream bottoms has already begun. The region 



22 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



is well supplied with railroads. It is the most densely populated part 

of the State, and is growing rich raising small fruits and vegetables for 

the early northern market. 
As the stream bottoms are 
brought under cultivation 
this region will become one of 
the garden spots of the United 
States. It is already the 
source of some of the best 
clays in the United States, 
and offers unusual opportu- 
nities for the manufacture of 
high grade clay products for 
the Southern market. Either 
side of the plateau are the 
valleys of the Tennessee Riv- 
er, with an area of 1,200 
square miles, and the bottoms 
of the Mississippi River of 
nearly 1,000 square miles, 
both only awaiting reclama- 
tion to become what 
such river valleys as those all 
over the world become when 
properly reclaimed, the world's 
granaries. At present most 
of this area is covered with a 

dense vegetation, spotted with lakes and marshes, and underlain with 

a soil of imperishable fertility. 




WOODLOT ON UPLANDS, HARDEMAN COUNTY, TENNESSEE. 




VILLAGE STREET, WEST TENNESSEE (Trenton). 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




MISSISSIPPI BOTTOM-LANDS, DYER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. 



24 RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



MINERAL RESOURCES 

General Statement. Between forty and fifty economic minerals are 
found in Tennessee in commercial quantities. The list includes among 
fuels coal, oil, gas, and lignite; among metallic ores those of gold, 
silver, copper, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, aluminum; among fertilizers 
phosphate rocks and green sands or marls ; among structural materials 
granite, sandstone, limestone, marble, cement materials, chert, 
clays and kaolin and their products, sand and gravel, shale, slate, etc.; 
among materials used in the arts barite, fluorspar, glass sand, gypsum, 
lithographic stone, metallic paints and mortar colors, pyrite, salt, 
sulphuric acid, etc. 




COKE OVENS, LAFOLLETTE, TENNESSEE. 

Not only has Tennessee a great variety of mineral resources, but 
most of them are in large quantities. Thus the United States Geological 
Survey estimates the coal of Tennessee at over 25,000,000,000 tons of 
which 90,000,000 tons have been mined; the iron of Tennessee at 
500,000,000 tons; the phosphate rock at 100,000,000 tons; one of the 
marbles of the State outcrops in a series of belts 150 miles long. Zinc 
occurs in three belts, one of which is 40 miles long and from 50 to 700 
feet wide. The State stands second in the production of barite and 
in the production of phosphate; third in the production of marble; 
sixth in the production of copper. Gold, silver, lead, oil and gas, 
fluorspar, manganese and pyrite occur in commercial quantities, though 
as far as yet found not in very large quantities. Most of the structural 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 25 

materials listed occur in large quantities and of very high grade. There 
is hardly a single one of these industries that does not offer fine oppor- 
tunities for investment and development. Many of the deposits have 
hardly been scratched, many are worked in a small way at a small 
profit, and only need large capital to make their development highly 
profitable. 




COAL SHAFT, TIPPLE AND POWER HOUSE, BON AIR, TENNESSEE. 

The occurrence of some of the principal mineral resources are de- 
scribed in the following paragraphs, taken alphabetically: 

Barite or ' 'heavy spar," used for a multitude of purposes, is widely 
scattered in vertical veins in the limestones of the East Tennessee 
Valley, the Central Basin and the Highland Rim. The principal 
producing counties have been Greene, Hamblen, Loudon, McMinn and 
Monroe, all in East Tennessee. 

Bauxite, the common ore of aluminum, is being mined on the southeast 
slope of Missionary Ridge, near Chattanooga, by the National Bauxite 
Company. 

Cement. Pure limestones for cement occur in Tennessee in the 
flank of the Cumberland Plateau, where the white limestones are often 
several hundred feet thick. These are not always well situated for 



26 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



quarrying, but many good quarry sites can be found. Certain lime- 
stones of the Great Valley and Central Basin are of high grade and 
abundant. In addition to the marble quarried in East Tennessee, 
which is a very pure limestone, other marbles over the State should 
prove suitable for making cement. Clays and shales are abundant in 
the coal measures of the Cumberland Plateau and in many places over 
the State. At the present time one mill alone is producing 600,000 
barrels of Portland cement, worth half million dollars. Natural cement 
has been made from shaly limestones in Hardin and Knox counties, and 
many other counties contain limestones probably well suited to its 
manufacture. 




CHERT ("GRAVEL") QUARRY, BENTON COUNTY, WEST TENNESSEE. 



Chert for the use of roads and other purposes is abundant on the 
chert ridges of East Tennessee and around the rim of the Central Basin 
of Middle Tennessee, in the latter case forming a layer 200 feet thick. 
On the eastern edge of West Tennessee, the chert known as "novaculite," 
is extensively used for road making all over West Tennessee and to a 
slight extent in Middle Tennessee. It is possibly the best material 
for road building in the South. 

Clays and Shales. Aside from the surface clays used all over the 
State for the manufacture of brick, Tennessee possesses large quantities 
of high grade china clays and pottery clays. Ball clays, equal in every 
way to the English ball clays, and rapidly replacing their use, occur in a 
belt over West Tennessee, crossing Henry, Carroll, Henderson, Gibson, 
Madison, Hardeman and Fayette Counties. The clay occurs in lenses 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




MINING BALL CLAY, HENRY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. 

from 18 to 20 feet thick down to a feather-edge and over areas from one 
to two acres up to ten or twelve acres or more. Sagger, wad and fire 
clays are abundant in the same areas. These clays are being shipped to 
all of the States to the northeast. The other clays of the State have not 
yet been studied, but deposits of high grade are being worked here and 
there, and give much promise, especially in the plateau region. 

As yet kaolin has only been found in small quantity, though recently 
a considerable deposit has been found near Sparta. Beds 18 inches 
thick are known to exist in Henry County, but under heavy cover. 

Shales are abundant in the coal measures and in parts of the Great 
Valley, and are being utilized to some extent. Near Chattanooga a 
large industry has been built up, using the shales just below the coal 
measures, in making turpentine cups. 

With high grade clays close at hand and all the needful materials, 
with cheap fuel and a growing market to the South and West, Tennessee 
offers an unusual field for the manufacture of high grade clay wares, 
china ware, sanitary ware, electric insulators, etc. At the present time 
these clays are being shipped from Tennessee to East Liverpool, Ohio, 
and other places, made into chinaware, and shipped back to Tennessee 
or through the State to the Southeast. 



28 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



Coal. The coal field of Tennessee is 
coincident with the Cumberland Plateau, 
lying in a northeast-southwest direction a 
little east of the center of the State, and 
covering all or parts of twenty counties. 
The coal-bearing rocks have a thickness of 
4,000 feet at the north end of the State, but 
as the rocks rise to the South, at the south- 
ern end of the State only a few hundred feet 
of the base of the measures remain capping 
the plateau. The lower 1,200 feet of the 
rocks are largely sandstones, and the coals 
associated with them are less regular than 
the higher coals, varying from 18 feet or more 
down to a fraction of a foot. Considerable 
areas of 3 or 4 foot coal are found, but in 
places the beds are thin and unworkable. 
The lower beds underlie the whole plateau, 
being found near its top at the south and 
along the western edge of the field, and 
dipping to the north and east so as to be 
mainly below the stream bottoms in the 
northeast part of the field. 

The higher 3,000 or less feet of the rocks contain as many as 50 beds of 
coal, and while many of these are less than a foot thick, many of them are 
workable with a thickness of from 3 to 6 feet or more over large areas. 
Indeed, many of the more important beds can be traced from county to 
county and appear to be generally workable wherever they are under 
cover. Some of the beds are locally injured by partings of clay or shale 
that reduce the amount of mechantable coal. In Bryson Mountain, 
Claiborne County, a total thickness of coal was measured of 95 feet, of 
which 13 beds were of good workable thickness, and 7 were being worked 
in 1902-3. The worked beds showed an average thickness of from 4 to 
6> feet, with a range of from 3i to 9f feet. The coals of Tennessee are 
of the bituminous variety and most of them will coke, yielding from 48 
to 60 per cent. The coal of the Jellico field produces an indifferent 
coke, but has a wide reputation as a high grade household coal. The coals 
of the lower groups, as a rule, are cleaner, and harder than the higher 
coals. 




COAL MINE, TIPPLE AND WASHER, 
EASTLAND, TENNESSEE. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



29 




TYPICAL COAL MINE, TENNESSEE. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




GENERAL VIEW OF SMELTING WORKS AND ACID PLANT OF 
TENNESSEE COPPER COMPANY. 



Copper. Tennessee's pro- 
duction of copper comes en- 
tirely from the region about 
Ducktown, in Polk County, 
in the extreme southeast cor- 
ner of the State. The ores 
occur in a belt 2 miles wide by 
4 miles long, lying in a north- 
east-southwest direction. 
They occur in fissure veins 
from a few feet to 150 feet 
wide in metamorphic schists. 
The ore, which is an iron ore, 
contains very near 10% of 

copper ore, averaging about 3>^% of metallic copper. The ore is 
chiefly magnetic pyrite, with finely divided copper pyrite. The ore 
contains an average of about 31.4 pounds of copper per ton. In the 
weathered belt at the surface, the pyrrhotite has weathered into iron 
oxide, which is being used as a source of iron ore. (See illustration under 
iron.) The copper ores have been worked since 1843, and as early as 
1855 a million dollars worth of ore was shipped. Recently expensive 
plants have been started at Ducktown to save the sulphur fumes formed 
in the reduction of the copper and convert them into sulphuric acid. 

Dolomite. The Knox Dolomite of East Tennessee, which covers 
many hundreds of square miles, has been very extensively used for abut- 
ments of railroad bridges and similar structural work. It is readily cut 
and dressed, and due to its firm, fine structure, is capable of standing 
great weight. It splits readily along bedding plains 6 inches to 3 feet 
apart and resists frost and heat well. 

Fluorspar. The fluorspar deposits of Tennessee have not yet been 
studied in detail. Small quantities of high grade rock coming from 
fissure veins, have been mined in Smith, Trousdale and Wilson counties. 
It is said that lumps of pure fluorspar weighing 1,500 pounds have been 
taken from these deposits. In some cases the fluorspar is associated with 
barite. 

Glass Sand. The white sandstone capping Chilhowee Mountain is 
now being crushed near Bristol and shipped north for making glass. 
Practically an endless amount of such sandstones exist in the State. 
Good sand is found at Coal Creek in Anderson County, and glass has 
been made in Knoxville from sand obtained on the opposite side of 
Holston River. ^ 

Gold has been found in Tennessee only along the eastern edge of the 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 31 

State in Cambrian or Pre-Cambrian rocks on the western flank of the 
Great Smoky Mountains. Placer gold has been found in the creeks a few 
miles east of Montvale Springs, and back of Chilhowee Mountain in 
Blount County. In Polk County, gold is obtained as a by-product from 
the copper ores. In Monroe County on Citico Creek, Cane Creek, the 
headwaters of Tellico River, and on Coker Creek. The last locality has 
furnished about $200.000 worth of gold, nearly all from stream gravels. 

Granite in Tennessee is confined to the western slope of the Great 
Smoky Mountains. Portions of the Max-Patch granite, marked by red 
f eld-spar, are very ornamental, as are the coarse grained masses in that 
granite. The Cranberry granite is lighter in color and fairly uniform in 
texture, and it is found in all of the counties along the eastern edge. 

Green sand occurs in Western Tennessee, associated with the Selma 
Clays. Aside from lime and an appreciable amount of phosphorus, 
analyses show these green sands to often carry 10% or more of potash. 





MINING IRON, DUCKTOWN, TENNESSEE. 

Iron. Tennessee ranks eighth in the production of iron, producing 
in 1907 nearly 1,000,000 tons. The ore occurs in four belts; first an 
eastern belt through Johnson, Sullivan, Carter, Washington, Unicoi, 
Greene, Cocke, Sevier, Blount, Monroe, McMinn and Polk counties, in 
which the ores are limonite, hematite and magnetite, occurring in irreg- 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




ROANE IRON WORKS, ROCKWOOD, TENNESSEE. 



ular masses of limited extent, associated with the older rocks; second, a 
bed of red fossiliferous oolitic hematite, known as "Clinton ore." The 
ore occurs as a bedded deposit with much regularity, having a thickness 
of up to 6 feet. Where leached at the surface it will yield as high as 
56% of iron, though the unweathered ore will yield much less. The ore 
occurs at the foot of the eastern escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau, 
and at many points east of that and into the lower part of the Sequatchie 
Valley. The third belt is co-ordinate with the coal field and the ore 
is of clay ironstone nodules in the shales of the coal measure rocks. The 
ore is usually not of high grade. The fourth belt covers over 5,000 
square miles in western Tennessee. The ores are limonite with some 
hematite and turgite, and are associated with chert and clay from the 
decomposition of the St. Louis limestone. The deposits in places have a 
thickness of up to over 100 feet. The ore makes up from one-half to 
one-fourth or less of the mass. In 1908 there were 67 iron mines 
being worked by 38 companies, with 17 furnaces in active operation, all 
but one using coke for fuel. 

Lead ore has been found in true veins in grains and lumps in Union 
County, and disseminated in grains through the rocks of Bumpus Cove 
in Washington County, and as irregular masses or benches in McMinn 
County. Veins are known in Monroe, Bradley and Jefferson counties, 
all of which have been worked. Many veins have been found and 
opened in the Central Basin, including mines in Davidson County and 
Williamson County near Nolensville. Fine specimens have been found 
in Hickman, Henry and other counties. Lead has been mined with 
zinc on Straight Creek in Claiborne County, and is found in minable 
quantities in Blount County and in Bradley County. It has been mined 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 33 

for some years at Blue Springs 6 miles south of Cleveland, and at the 
Cedar Ridge mine encouraging prospects have been found. Ores are 
the sulphide, except where weathered into the lead carbonate. In 
1906 over 200,000 pounds were mined. 

Lignite, or brown coal, is found extensively in the Eocene deposits 
of West Tennessee. The beds are interstratified with clay and sand and 
vary from a few inches up to 4 or 5 feet in thickness. Beds have been 
found extensively in Obion, Dyer, Lauderdale, Tipton^and Shelby coun- 
ties along the escarpment ofthe Mississippi bottoms. Attempts to use 
this lignite in the past have not been successful. 




LIME KILNS, SHERWOOD, TENNESSEE. 

Limestones form probably a majority of the rocks of the State. 
They are in every shade of color from gray to black, and every variety 
from pure, heavy bedded limestone to very impure, laminated, shaly or 
sandy limestones, that soon crumble when exposed to the weather. 
They are put to a variety of uses from building roads to lining fine 
buildings. Somewhat less than 1,000,000 tons valued at half a million 
dollars were mined in 1908 (not including marble), 

Lithographic stone has been found near Algood in Putnam County. 
The limestones occurring a short distance below the base of the coal 
measures all along the western escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau 
tend to contain limestones of lithographic character, but as a rule, not 
free enough from imperfections to serve as commercial stone. 

Manganese in the form of oxides, occurs in northeastern Tennessee, 
notably in Shady Valley, Johnson County; near Unicoi, Unicoi County; 
near Newport and Del Rio, in Cocke County. The ores occur in the 
lower part of the Shady limestone in variegated clays as hard nodules or 
irregular masses, generally associated with brown iron ores. The ore 
also occurs near Morristown, Hamblen County; near Sweetwater, 
Monroe County, and elsewhere. 



34 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 








LIMESTONE QUARRY, SHERWOOD, TENNESSEE. 




CLIFF OF MARBLE, TENNESSEE RIVER (near Knoxville.) 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



35 




A CORNER IN A MARBLE QUARRY, KNOXVILLE. 



Marble. Tennessee has long 
been famous for her marble, which 
is extensively quarried in a broad 
belt running northeast and south- 
west from Knoxville. Three- 
fourths of a million dollars worth 
was quarried in 1908, coming 
mostly from Knox and Blount 
counties. The bulk of the stone 
is used for interior decoration, 
for which it is highly suited. 
The main marble stratum has 
a thickness of from 300 feet 
up to 650 feet, though usually 
not over 50 feet is workable 
at any one point. The marble 
varies in color from cream, yel- 
low, brown, chocolate and red, 
to pink or blue in endless va- 
rieties. Tests show it to have a 
high chemical purity and high crushing strength and high resistance to 
absorption of water. A large variety of marbles occur well distributed 
over the State. 

Metallic Paints and Mortar Colors are obtained from low grade ores 
or in some cases from high grade ores where not mined for metal. The 
oxides and carbonates of iron, zinc and lead, are so used, the supply com- 
ing mainly from Bradley, Cheatham and James counties. 

Mineral Springs are abundant in Tennessee, and in most cases have 
adjacent to them hotel accommodations of greater or less pretensions. 
In addition, in 1908, $60,000 worth of spring water was sold. 

Oil and Gas have not as yet proved very profitable in Tennessee. In 
a number of areas those substances have been encountered in wells, and, 
all told, many thousand barrels have been secured and sold. Apparently 
most of the oil and gas have come from rocks, either closely above or 
below the Chattanooga black shale, so that the greatest development 
and most promising field consists of a belt around the Highland Rim, 
where the Chattanooga black shale is usually less than 300 feet under 
cover. Considerable quantities of oil have been obtained from wells less 
than 100 feet deep. In fact most of the oil in the State, as in the corres- 
ponding parts of Kentucky, has been obtained from these very shallow wells. 
The best wells have been found in Overton, Fentress, Scott and Putnam 
counties. The oil is of high grade, free from sulphur, of 38.60 to 43. 60 



36 RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 

Baume. Some of the oil has been hauled to the Cumberland River or to 
McMinnville for shipping or run into tanks, and for a time a pipe line was 
extended into the State, but the production in that part of the field was 
not maintained, and the pipe line was taken up. Some oil and gas have 
been found on the western side of the Central Basin, associated with the 
black shale. Some drilling is in progress at present near Memphis in the 
rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age, but as yet no oil has been struck. 

Phosphate. Tennessee ranks next to Florida in the production of 
phosphate, producing in 1907, 638,612 long tons, valued at$3,047,836. Four 
main types of phosphate rock are found: The "brown" resulting from the 
leaching of a number of limestones of Trenton age. The original lime- 
stones contain bands, running from 30 to 55 per cent of lime phosphate, 
which, when weathered, will leach to a porous brown rock, resembling sand- 
stone, and containing from 70 to 82 per cent of bone phosphate. The 
brown phosphates occur as surface deposits from 3 to 12 feet thick, aver- 
aging about 6 feet. The second type known as the blue or gray phos- 
phate is a bedded deposit at the base of the Chattanooga black shale. It 
has a thickness of from 4 feet down, and as a rule is mined in the same way 
as coal. It is widely distributed all around the Central Basin. 

Immediately above the black shale is a green shale, containing nodules 
of phosphate, carrying up to 69 per cent of lime phosphate. In Decatur 
and Perry counties appear white phosphates, that seem to be recrystallized 
calcium phosphate, as though one of the earlier phosphatic beds had been 
dissolved and redeposited. The brown phosphates are confined to a wide 
area in the western, northern and southern parts of the Central Basin, 
while the blue phosphates occur in the escarpment of the Highland Rim 
all about that basin. 

Pyrite, while largely scattered through the rocks all over the State, 
has been worked on Stony Creek, in Carter County, 12 miles northeast of 
Elizabethton, Large quantities have been found in Moore, Cheatham 
and Greene counties, as well as in association with the copper ores of 
Polk County. 

Sandstone abounds in the Cumberland Plateau where certain massive 
beds are mainly responsible for the flat character of the plateau. Consider- 
able building stone has been quarried from this plateau sandstone which 
has been used locally in buildings, and to some extent shipped to Nash- 
ville and elsewhere. In East Tennessee many of the ridges are made 
up of hard sandstones, too often too hard to work with ease. 

Silica Rock, so called, is being mined at several points and ground for 
use as polishing powder. As a rule these rocks are composed of decayed 
chert. A plant of this kind exists at Black Fox, in Bradley County, and 
another near Bristol, is grinding a pure sandstone to flour. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



37 



Silver production in Tennessee has been confined to that obtained as a 
by-product in the mining of the copper ores in the Ducktown region. 
Numerous stories of silver mines are found over the State, but so far the 
silver has not materialized. 

Slate occurs abundantly in the extreme eastern counties. During the 
last year some of it has been mined on a commercial scale. The slate is 
a pale green semi-talcose variety, very durable when free from pyrite, and 
splitting readily into plates with smooth surfaces. The slate has the nec- 
essary hardness, evenness, and cleavage along the Little Pigeon River, 
and is well exposed over large areas. Quarries have been opened in it at 
many points for local use. The slates are found in Cocke, Sevier, Blount, 
Monroe, McMinn and Polk counties. 

Zinc mining in Ten- 
nessee is still in the devel- 
opment stage. The ores 
are confined mainly to the 
magnesian limestones or 
dolomites and principally 
to three belts in the Great 
Valley. The first belt 
crosses Claiborne and 
Union counties, near New 
Prospect, 6 miles south- 
east of Tazewell. The 
second belt follows the 
Southern Railway along 
the Valley of the Holston 
River for 40 miles, having 
a width of from 50 to 700 
feet. The third belt lies 
further south near the 
French Broad River. 
The main ore is zinc 
blend, weathering to the 
carbonate at the surface. 
As a rule, the ores are of 
low grade, though bringing a good price because free from iron. They 
appear closely associated with fault zones where the rocks have been 
broken over a wide belt. One difficulty experienced in smelting the 
zinc has been its association with barite. 




ZINC MINE AT LEAD MINE BEND. 



38 RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 




UNUSED WATER-POWER IN TENNESSEE. 



ACKNOWLEDGM ENTS 



The writer wishes to make acknowledgment for the loan or use of 
photographs as follows: 

(Figures refer to pages; a, b, c to 1st, 2d and 3d cut on page.) 
Photographs by Will H. Stokes, Chattanooga Frontispiece, 8b, 12, i8a. 
Photographs loaned by L. C. Glenn i6a, 2oa, 31, 35. 
Photographs taken and loaned by Albert Ganier 8a, Qa, i8b, 19, 28. 
Photograph by Wiles, Nashville gb. 
U. S. Forest Service 15, 22a, 23. 
U. S. Geological Survey i6b. 
Knoxville Commercial Club lob, 17. 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. 38. 
University of Tennessee Collection 24. 
Roane Iron Co. 32. 
Photograph by S. W. Osgood 37. 
Photograph by Patterson, Nashville 7. 
Photographs by Fuller, Nashville 6, 29. 
Photographs by Coovert, Memphis na, I3a. 
Photograph loaned by D. Shelby Williams, Nashville I3b. 
Photograph loaned by R. J. Riddle, Nashville 2ob. 
Photograph loaned by Bon Air Coal Co. 25. 
Tennessee Copper Co. 30. 



Photographs by Author loa, 14, 2ib, 22b, 26, 27, 33, 34. 



RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE * 30 

^^ *^ 4 * 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE STATE GEOLOGICAL 

SURVEY 



The following list shows the publications issued by the State Geologi- 
cal Survey or in preparation at the time this bulletin goes to press, April, 
1911. Except for five hundred copies of each publication (which are re- 
served for sale at the cost of printing), the bulletins will be sent free on 
request, accompanied by stamps, made to the State Geologist, Capitol 
Annex, Nashville, Tennessee. 

Bulletins Nos. i-A, i-B, 2-A, 2-D, 2-E, 2-G, 3, 4, 5, 9- A and ij, issued. 
Bulletin No. i. Geological work in Tennessee. (Parts A and B issued). 

A. The establishment, purpose, object and methods of the State 
Geological Survey; by Geo. H. Ashley; 33 pages; issued July, 1910; 
postage, 2 cents. 

B. Bibliography of Tennessee and related subjects; by Elizabeth Cockrill. 
Issued; postage, 3 cents. 

C. History of Geological work in Tennessee; by L. C. Glenn, (in prepa- 
ration.) 

Bulletin No. 2. Preliminary papers on the Mineral Resources of Tennessee; by Geo. 
H. Ashley and others. (Parts A. D, E and G issued). 

A. Outline introduction to the Mineral Resources of Tennessee; by 
Geo. H. Ashley. Issued September 10, 1910; postage, 2 cents. 

B. The Coal Fields of Tennessee; by Geo. H. Ashley, (in preparation). 

C. The Iron Ores of Tennessee; by R. P. Jarvis, (in preparation). 

D. The Marble of East Tennessee; by C. H. Gordon. Issued; postage, 
2 cents. 

E. Oil and Gas Development in Tennessee; by M.J. Munn. Issued* postage, 
2 cents. 

F. The Phosphate Deposits of Tennessee; by Lucius P. Brown, (in prep- 
aration). 

G. Zinc Mining in Tennessee; by S. W. Osgood. Issued; postage, 1 cent. 
H. Preliminary Geological map of Tennessee, (in preparation). 

Bulletin No. j. Drainage Reclamation in Tennessee; 74 pages, issued July, 1910; 
postage, 3 cents. 

A. Drainage Problems in Tennessee; by Geo. H. Ashley; pp. 1-15; 
postage, 1 cent. 

B. Drainage of Rivers in Gibson County, Tennessee; by A. E. Morgan and 
S. H. McCrory; pp. 17-43; postage, 1 cent. 

C. The Drainage Law of Tennessee; pp. 54-74; postage, 1 cent. 
Bulletin No. 4. Administrative Report of the State Geologist for 1910. Issued; 

postage, 2 cents. 

Bulletin No. 5. Clay Deposits of West Tennessee; by Wilbur A. Nelson. Issued; 
postage, 3 cents. 



40 RESOURCES OF TENNESSEE 



Bulletin No. 6. Road Building in Tennessee; by Geo. H. Ashley, (in preparation). 
Bulletin No. 7. Water Resources of Tennessee; by L. C. Glenn, (in preparation). 
Bulletin No. 8. Economic Geology of the Dayton-Pikeville Region; by W. C. Phalen, 

(in preparation). 
Bulletin No.fy Studies of the Forests of Tennessee. 

A. An investigation of the forest conditions in Tennessee; by R. Clifford 
Hall. Issued; postage, 2 cents. 

B. A study of the growth of the second growth hardwoods; by W. W. 
Ashe, (in preparation). 

Bulletin No. fro. The marbles of East Tennessee, illustrated with colored plates; 

by C. H. Gordon, (in preparation). 
Bulletin No. 12. The undeveloped small water powers of Tennessee; by J. A. Switzer 

and Geo. H. Ashley, (in press). 

Bulletin No. ij. The Resources of Tennessee, (a brief summary); by Geo. H. Ashley. 
Issued; postage, 2 cents. 



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